The alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance characterization

Over time, this means your heart can’t pump blood as effectively, which reduces your body’s available oxygen supply. Figure 3 summarizes the potential mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective and adverse effects of alcohol consumption. This area of research was briefly outlined here; more comprehensive reviews on these mechanisms are available (Krenz and Korthuis 2012; Mathews et al. 2015). We do know that the majority of alcoholic cardiomyopathy diagnoses occur in males aged years who have more than 10 years of excessive alcohol use.

alcoholic cardiomyopathy

This test will assess the ejection fraction (EF), a measurement that expresses how much blood the LV pumps out with each contraction. Once doctors have found alcoholic cardiomyopathy this, they will look for the cause of the weakened heart. Cardiotoxicity refers to heart damage that occurs in response to certain drugs, such as alcohol.

What are the symptoms of alcoholic cardiomyopathy?

This study aimed to identify risk factors related to a poor outcome in ACM patients. For tens of years, the literature has documented many clinical cases or small series of patients who have undergone a full recovery of ejection fraction and a good clinical evolution after a period of complete alcoholic abstinence. From the data provided in the available ACM studies, it appears that patients who received an ACEI globally showed improved prognosis. In contrast, beta-blockers, similar to aldosterone inhibitors, however beneficial they may be, have thus far not yielded sufficient data on their efficacy in relation to this disease. Since those initial descriptions, reports on several isolated cases or in small series of patients with HF due to DCM and high alcohol intake have been published[15-17].

The authors examined the prevalence of cardiomegaly by means of chest x-rays and related it to alcohol consumption among a consecutive series of Japanese males of working age. They found that 2 of the 6 individuals (33%) whose alcohol consumption exceeded 125 mL/d had cardiomegaly. In contrast, an enlarged heart was found in only 1 of 25 subjects with moderate consumption (4%), in 6 of 105 very mild consumers (5.7%), and in 4.5% of non-drinking individuals.

How can I prevent this condition or reduce my risk?

The genetic background of these types of DCM patients often overlaps with ARVC and left dominant arrhythmic cardiopathy (LDAC), especially desmosomes and nuclear envelope mutations. Preventive ICD implantation can improve the prognosis of patients with LMNA mutation positive which is an important pathogenic mutation of arrhythmic DCM. Seventy-three percent of patients have abnormal conduction function, 61% have supraventricular tachycardia, and 50% have ventricular arrhythmia [74]. Malignant arrhythmias in these patients often precede changes in cardiac morphology and function, so early gene diagnosis is extremely important to identify this type of DCM. In addition to LMNA mutations, SCN5A, RBM20, FLNC, and TTN mutations are all risk mutations of arrhythmic DCM.

alcoholic cardiomyopathy

Furthermore, it is now evident that mitochondria function in networks and that when mitochondria become damaged their function can possibly restored by fusion with neighboring mitochondria (55). Also, others have suggested that, in data from animal models of alcoholism, there is an interaction between chronic ethanol consumption and caloric deprivation in eliciting alterations in myocardial energy metabolism (58). Many of the studies reviewed in this section were published more than 15 years ago and used measurements of respiratory states (1-IV) and respiratory control index ratios. These studies were performed in experimental conditions in which there may be multiple mitochondrial deficits and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. More research is required using more contemporary measures of mitochondrial function as well as determining changes in mitochondrial DNA. Askanas et al[21] found a significant increase in the myocardial mass and of the pre-ejection periods in drinkers of over 12 oz of whisky (approximately 120 g of alcohol) compared to a control group of non-drinkers.

Cardiac cirrhosis or cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

From WHO/ISFC to MOGE(S) classification, the definition and classification of cardiomyopathy are becoming more and more refined, and diversified. Excepting the pathological and pathological changes, the impact of the cause, especially the genetic factors, has also been paid more attention. In addition to the traditional classification of the overall classification of cardiomyopathy, there are also many studies focusing on the classification of cardiomyopathy subtypes. These studies accurately classified the subtypes of cardiomyopathy through morphology, pathology, proteomics, genetics, and other methods to evaluate the therapeutic response and prognosis difference of the same cardiomyopathy. The AHA classification divides cardiomyopathy into two groups primary and secondary mainly depending on the involvement of main organs and etiology. It is worth noting that ion channel disease is considered a kind of cardiomyopathy, which belongs to hereditary cardiomyopathy.

  • AHA classification further refined the diagnostic basis and classified HCM as primary cardiomyopathy.
  • The discovery of this subtype of special gene-related cardiomyopathy provides us with a diagnostic basis for early and active clinical intervention.
  • For example, a slight increase in the pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio (PEP/LVET) was found by some authors, suggesting a sub-clinical impairment of systolic function[21,33].
  • The AHA classification divides cardiomyopathy into two groups primary and secondary mainly depending on the involvement of main organs and etiology.